In 2010, the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) and the World Bank (WB) conducted an analysis of agricultural extension and clean water access in rural areas in India, Ghana, and Ethiopia. The surveys were conducted in approximately 1,000 households in each country.
Access to agricultural extension varied across the three countries. There was reported moderate access in India and Ethiopia, and low access in Ghana. Agricultural extension services were reported as inconsistent in many areas and the quality of the service provided varied. Each country in the report had different apparent causes for the inadequate availability or poor quality of agricultural extension services. A common feature in every country was the gendered divide in access to agricultural extension services. Oftentimes, extension service workers did not talk to the women of the household and in some cases, there was a perception that women were not farmers and thus could not benefit from the extension services. Seemingly by default, the extension workers would speak only to the men of the household even if women were a part of the agricultural community in that region.
The IFPRI and WB report also investigated access to clean water in this study. India was reported to have high water access, Ghana had moderate access, and Ethiopia had low access to clean water. The decentralization of water access and maintenance in India most likely contributes to its high amount of clean water access. However, Ghana and Ethiopia do not report high disatisfaction rates even if water access is low. In addition to access, the survey also asked about maintenance and accountability to water systems. Regardless of rates of water access and happiness with water access, the share of households that reported dissatisfaction with their service (or lack thereof) to government officials or political representatives was low.
General recommendations for improving agricultural extension services and access to clean water address the gendered issues seen in every country. Some of suggestions are:
- Looking at why rural services and solutions fail women: link gender-related efforts to general reform efforts and fix the perceptions that women are not farmers, or do not make agricultural decisions
- There is a need to obtain gender-disaggregated data on access to services
- Investigate the possibility of different kinds of community groups for services that are necessary for the entire population of the village or region: for instance, farmer-based organizations are good for targeting farmers but lack access to the entire population for promoting and ensuring clean water access=
IFPRI and the WB also recommended country-specific policy suggestions. There is an acknowledgement that agricultural extension services and clean water access are managed and maintained best by local actors. There have been efforts to decentralize these systems in all three countries, but there are recommendations to make the decentralization more effective.
To make decentralization as effective as possible, IFPRI recommends:
- Creating structures to prevent elite capture of resources
- Increasing gram panchayat administrative support
- Making it easier for women to attend gram panchayat meetings
India has not hired new agricultural extension workers for more than a decade (in 2010) and capacity suffers because of this. Further recommendations include:
- Hiring new extension workers as soon as possible will improve the quantity of farms an extension worker can visit and, hopefully with gender-sensitive training, can help bridge the gap between agricultural extension access between men and women
- Re-establish the function of agricultural extension workers as a link between farmers and researchers.
- Expanding extension workers roles even more- there is an opportunity for extension workers to organize inclusive farmer-based organizations and interest groups.
Suggestions for India’s clean water access focus mainly on making the water and sanitation systems more gender inclusive:
- Getting more women involved in WASH committees
- Including gender issues in WASH professionals’ training
- Hiring more women
- Focusing more on drainage
Decentralization in Ghana has opportunities to be stronger. Some recommendations are gender focused:
- Increasing the number of female district assembly members
- Strengthening gender district focal points to ensure gender is a priority at the district level
- Empowering district assembly members more
- Strengthening the subdistrict structure, so as to aid district assembly members more effectively
Agricultural extension rates in Ghana are low. Improvements can be made by:
- Better management practices
- Focusing more on goals and outcomes of the agricultural extension workers
- Increasing access to female farmers
- Reconsidering the roles of farmer-based organizations to deliver agricultural extension services more effectively
Access to clean water is hindered by the misunderstanding around Ghana’s Water and Sanitation Committees (WATSANs). WATSANs have limited coverage, so expanding their capacity and strengthening their role in the accountability system is key for more effective implementation.
Local government has a lot of potential in Ethiopia. The recommendations encapsulate the need for strengthening the capacity and skills of local government and supporting regional government as well. Additionally:
- There are suggestions to better monitor local service delivery
- Pay attention to the gender dimensions of service delivery and local leadership
- Investigate the ruling party process and systems.
Currently agricultural extension services are narrowly focused and delivered from a very top-down approach. Promising strategies to make agricultural extension more effective are:
- Giving extension workers more discretion
- Extending coverage to where it is currently limited, like pastoral areas
- Identifying innovative ways to bridge the gender gap in access to agricultural extension services
Ethiopia struggles with perceptions of clientelism in the delivery of public services. Effective delivery of gender-sensitive and inclusive water systems from water committees, and not political actors, will help make clean water more accessible and better maintained.
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