New Report 2014: Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation

report_unicefThe new report “Progress on Drinking Water and Sanitation. Update 2014” from UNICEF and the World Health Organization “highlights a narrowing disparity in access to cleaner water and better sanitation between rural and urban areas.” Although some global progress was made “sharp geographic, socio-cultural, and economic inequalities in access to improved drinking water and sanitation facilities still persist around the world.” (Unicef, 2014)

The following tables present some of the findings relevant to the program countries of The Hunger Project.

  • 82% of the one billion people practising open defecation in the world live in 10 countries. Among these countries are India with 597 million people practising open defection, Ethiopia with 34 million, and Mozambique with 10 million.
  • Countries which could reduce open defection are Bangladesh, Benin, Ethiopia, and Peru. They belong to the 10 countries that have achieved the highest reduction of open defecation:
% of the population practising open defecation, 1990 % of the population practising open defecation, 2012 Percentage point reduction in practice of open defecation, 1990–2012
Ethiopia 92 37 55
Bangladesh 34 3 31
Peru 33 6 27
Benin 80 54 26
  • The following table shows the open defecation practices in Burkina Faso and Ethiopia according to level of education, and underlines significant disparities:
No Education, Preschool Primary Education Secondary Education Higher Education
Burkina Faso 76% 48% 14%
Ethiopia 54% 34% 15% 9%
  • The report’s findings on saniation and drinking water for all project countries with regard to the MDG targets read as follows (for a detailed breakdown see Annex 3):

Use of Sanitation Facilities

Progress towards MDG target Proportion of the 2012 population that gained access since 2000 (%)
Bangladesh not on track 19
Benin not on track 8
Bolivia not on track 16
Burkina Faso not on track 10
Ethiopia not on track 18
Ghana met target 35
India not on track 14
Malawi not on track 3
Mexico met target 21
Mozambique not on track 11
Peru on track 18
Senegal not on track 21
Uganda not on track 14

Use of Drinking Water Sources

Progress towards MDG target Proportion of the 2012 population that gained access since 2000 (%)
Bangladesh met target 20
Benin on track 30
Bolivia met target 24
Burkina Faso met target 40
Ethiopia on track 31
Ghana met target 35
India met target 25
Malawi met target 31
Mexico met traget 19
Mozambique not on track 19
Peru on track 17
Senegal progress insufficient 26
Uganda met target 37

To read the full report and see the findings click here.

Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) Approaches to Creating Open Defecation Free (ODF) Community

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Trigger, a 2012 Annual Report publication on the Pan-African Community-Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) programmes, states that community empowerment and collective behavioral change including safe sanitation and hygiene with hand washing is an effective and sustainable way to creating open defecation free (ODF) community. According to the report, in community mobilization, self empowerment and collective behavioral change  instead of hardware and shifting the focus from toilet construction for individual households to the creation of ODF villages. (CLTS, 2012).

To read more about CLTS and its programmes around the world, click here.

CLTS, was introduced to Africa by Plan International in 2007 as an effective approach to achieving its child survival and millennium development goals (MDGs). So far, implementation of the ten CLTS programmes in African countries helped reduce infant and child morbidity and mortality, and the program has inspired other national, regional, continental  and multi-country sanitation initiatives. (CLTS, 20120). The followings are African countries in which the project was launched: Malawi, Zambia, Tanzania, Uganda, Kenya, Ethiopia, Sierra Leone, Ghana, Niger and Tanzania.

To read and download the CLTS programmes and its progress in Africa, click here.

Source: Institute of Development Studies (IDS)

New Freshwater Conservation and Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Integration Guidelines by Africa Biodiversity Collaborative Group (ABCG)

6a00d8341bf80a53ef01a3fae466ff970bAfrica Biodiversity Collaborative Group (ABCG) published Freshwater Conservation and Water, Sanitation, and Hygiene Integration Guidelines : A Framework for Implementation in Sub-Saharan Africa in December 2013 to guide the integration of Water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) and  Freshwater Conservation programs. The integration guidelines document highlights the benefits, the approaches, the principles and the rationale for the integration of the WASH and freshwater conservation sector in the context of Sub-Saharan Africa. According to the report, “water, poverty and environment are deeply connected” ; therefore, the integration of WASH projects and fresh water conservation leads to greater human well-being outcomes and improved conservation. The Theory of Change (ToC)  was utilized to show  “how the integration of WASH and freshwater conservation approach can promote human health, education, and economic growth, protect the environment and contribute to the sustainable development” ( ABCG, 2013). Statistical figures and data pertaining to WASH-related diseases and related economic loss due to wasted time, resource, energy and productivity were also included in the document.

Some important statistical figures to know from the ABCG guidelines on WASH and Water Conservation:

  • WASH-related diseases constitute 9.1% of the total disease burden in terms of disability-adjusted life years or DALYs (Pruss et al. 2002).

  • An estimated 800 million people around the world treat their water by boiling it on indoor stoves, leading to respiratory illnesses and fuel consumption (ABCG, 2013).

  • The World Health Organization estimates economic benefits of achieving the drinking water and sanitation target of the Millennium Development Goals amount to a total savings of 20 billion working days a year (ABCG, 2013).

  • According to the 2006 Human Development Report, women spend 40 billion hours a year in water collection in sub-Saharan Africa alone (Carr and Hart2010).

  • Approximately 443 million school days are lost annually because pupils and teachers are not able to attend due to WASH-related diseases (Walter 2013).

  • Each year approximately 800,000 children under five die from malnutrition induced by unsafe water, inadequate sanitation and insufficient hygiene (Prüss-Üstün 2008).

ABCG Guidelines also provide core principles for the freshwater conservation and the WASH project implementation and translating the core principles into action. A thorough explanation of the integration processes and guidelines were also given in the translating core principles in to action chapters. Guidelines for setting common vision, gathering information, identifying stakeholders and designing projects, implementation, and monitoring and evaluation were elaborated that could help foster the synergy between the WASH and the water conservation programs.

To download the full document ABCG, click here: